Bryozoan Bugula Neritina – an excellent host as a candidate against cancer and other diseases
The anticancer drugs bryostatin are currently in phase L and phase II cancer trials according to the US National Institutes of Health clinical trial program.Brisostatin-1 is a class of naturally-occurring chemical compound that it is toxic to cells (cytotoxic). The anticancer drugs bryostatin are produced by the bacterium Candidatus endobugula sertula and are found in the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina. The rod-shaped bacterium C. endobugula sertula produces the chemical bryostatin during the larval stage of bryozoan development. Young larval bryozoans are coated with this compound, which allows young larvae to be unpleasant and unpleasant to predators.
Bryozoan Bugula neritina is a tiny aquatic animal less than 1mm in length that forms colonies similar to corals and sponges. The bryozoan colonies can be of various types similar to plants similar to moss, in the style of branches or trees, to gelatinous masses. Bryozoans are water filters. There are more than 5,000 species of bryozoans in the world with only around 50 species from freshwater. The 130 most notable species of bryozoans tend to be a nuisance animal that litters ship hulls, moorings, docks, and docks. Some freshwater species form large gelatinous masses that tend to clog industrial water intakes. Bryozoan Bugula neritina is found in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of California, in the Gulf of Mexico, and in the Gulf of Aomori in Japan.
The best source of the cytotoxic chemical bryostatin I was found in bryozoans of the host Bugula neritina in 1968. Bryostatin was found to contain potent antileukemic activity. It has shown promise against lung cancer, prostate cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and possibly pancreatic cancer. The anticancer drugs bryostatin act synergistically with other anticancer drugs and are potent activators of protein kinase C.
Currently, more than 20 types of bryostatins have been identified from the bryozoan host Bugula neritina. Currently about 14 tons of bryozoan Bugula neritina are needed to produce 1 ounce of bryostatin. To synthesize bryostatin, chemical formula C47H68O17 with a molecular weight of 905,033, more than 50 steps are required in the laboratory.
The effective mechanism of bryostatin is its unique ability to activate the cell signaling enzyme Protein Kinase C (PKC), resulting in inhibition of tumor cell growth and causing tumor cell death. PKC is an important enzyme for controlling biochemical reactions in the cell. The anticancer drugs bryostatin have been associated with the initiation of the immune response, regulation of cell growth activity, and learning and memory. Cancer cells grow rapidly and need controlled growth to prevent the cells from damaging the body.
Since it is a promoter of PKC, the possibility that bryostatin helps improve memory and, in particular, fight Alzheimer’s disease is being studied. Bryostatin has been shown to increase learning rates in rats. There are currently about 40 phase 1 and phase 2 clinical trials underway for the use of the anticancer drugs of bryostatin for numerous types of cancer and in Alzheimer’s patients. Clinical trials so far have been for cancers such as: kidney, stomach, breast, prostate, lung, esophagus, head and neck, ovary, fallopian tube, cervical, multiple myeloma, and leukemia, to name a few.
Currently, Yeshiva University Albert Einstein School of Medicine has undergone phase II studies of metastatic pancreatic cancer with Bryostatin-1 and Paclitaxel. The results of this study and other cancer studies can be found in the Clinical Trials program of the US National Institute of Health.